The CBL - Composite Blocking List
CBL Statistics CBL FAQ
CBL HOME Privacy Policy

CBL breakdown by Country, Highest by count

Date prepared: Wed Feb 10 06:32:10 2016 UTC/GMT

Definition of ASN from Wikipedia and RFC1930 section 3:

Within the Internet, an autonomous system (AS) is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes [blocks of IP addresses] under the control of one or more network operators on behalf of a single administrative entity or domain that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.

An ASN is the identifier used to identify one of these collections. Generally speaking, large organizations on the Internet (such as Google or Yahoo) will own one or more AS, and thus have one or more ASNs. Most smaller organizations lease IP address space within a larger AS.

Notes:

  • Further analysis and time series graphs of this data are available at SpamRankings.
  • "Listings" is the number of unique IPs at the corresponding country which have been listed as infected by the CBL over the past 10 days.
  • "Traffic" is the number of emails that the CBL-listed IPs have sent to one (of our many) spamtrap in the past 3 days.
  • The entries prefixed by "C_" are where the country isn't known, and thus the entry consists of the ASN the entries belong to. These entries will be corrected as time permits.
  • AS?? entries are whether a routeviews lookup failed to resolve the IP to an AS number (needed to identify country and domain).
  • IP -> ASN mapping is done using routeviews.
  • ASN -> country, domain mapping is done with the RIR allocation maps plus CBL-developed mappings.
  • Traffic statistics: These are numbers taken at just one spamtrap, and does not represent the total flow. It is perhaps more an indicator of what a medium sized site would "see", than the entire CBL detection array.
  • Size(K): Approximate total IP addresses assigned to this entity in K. Eg 747 corresponds to 764928 IP addresses - approximately 12 /16s.
  • Infect %: Percentage of allocation that is listed. For example, at time of writing, the Infect % of IN is 6.118%, meaning 6.118% of all IN-allocated IPs are CBL-listed.
  • IPop (only in per-capita metrics): Total number of Internet users (country statistics only). Per-country statistics obtained from The CIA World Fact Book and Wikipedia, most are 2012.
  • IPop% (only in per-capita metrics): Percentage of Internet users that are infected.
Country Listings %total %
Total Listings
%cumulative
Total Listings
Rank Traffic %Traffic Spams/Bot Size(K) Infect % IPop IPop%
Total 8760046 100       182185166 100 20.80        
IN 1160216 13.24 13.24 13.24 1 1673073 0.92 145011.7 2.517% 200780998 0.577851%
VN 875640 10.00 10.00 23.24 2 4915574 2.70 532038.1 2.669% 36140967 2.42285%
CN 546497 6.24 6.24 29.48 3 3487750 1.91 6578172.6 0.092% 568192066 0.0961817%
RU 508821 5.81 5.81 35.29 4 8751680 4.80 1765617.0 0.757% 75926004 0.670154%
ID 442598 5.05 5.05 40.34 5 1228057 0.67 228075.6 1.540% 38191873 1.15888%
IR 438048 5.00 5.00 45.34 6 1432080 0.79 325456.7 1.680% 20504000 2.1364%
BR 399099 4.56 4.56 49.90 7 9797472 5.38 24127929.8 0.305% 99357737 0.401679%
TH 216337 2.47 2.47 52.37 8 204180 0.11 019275.6 1.096% 17779139 1.2168%
MX 215834 2.46 2.46 54.83 9 34706028 19.05 16039287.6 0.536% 44173551 0.488605%
US 209481 2.39 2.39 57.22 10 72348414 39.71 3451946285.3 0.011% 254295536 0.082377%
PK 179510 2.05 2.05 59.27 11 151760 0.08 016393.5 1.069% 30000000 0.598367%
IT 176218 2.01 2.01 61.28 12 4800476 2.63 2753931.9 0.319% 35531527 0.495948%
AR 149084 1.70 1.70 62.98 13 719140 0.39 425156.9 0.579% 23543412 0.63323%
EG 143277 1.64 1.64 64.62 14 476387 0.26 334835.8 0.402% 36881374 0.388481%
DE 139398 1.59 1.59 66.21 15 3250238 1.78 23124168.5 0.110% 68296919 0.204106%
TR 134280 1.53 1.53 67.74 16 1364158 0.75 1042858.0 0.306% 35990932 0.373094%
JP 130889 1.49 1.49 69.24 17 209557 0.12 1251991.0 0.051% 100684474 0.129999%
UA 121167 1.38 1.38 70.62 18 2926170 1.61 2415729.5 0.752% 15115820 0.801591%
TW 117293 1.34 1.34 71.96 19 1294694 0.71 1151429.9 0.223% 17656414 0.664308%
PL 115958 1.32 1.32 73.28 20 1758915 0.97 1522948.5 0.493% 24969935 0.46439%
DZ 113195 1.29 1.29 74.58 21 59870 0.03 012155.5 0.909% 5690291 1.98927%
ES 108099 1.23 1.23 75.81 22 824309 0.45 737670.0 0.280% 33870948 0.31915%
VE 101245 1.16 1.16 76.97 23 46152 0.03 07386.5 1.339% 12353883 0.81954%
RO 92053 1.05 1.05 78.02 24 580060 0.32 68655.1 1.039% 10924252 0.842648%
KZ 91266 1.04 1.04 79.06 25 347025 0.19 38313.2 1.072% 9341977 0.976945%
AU 90470 1.03 1.03 80.09 26 352289 0.19 361301.0 0.144% 18129727 0.499015%
MY 80364 0.92 0.92 81.01 27 69473 0.04 018505.7 0.424% 19200408 0.418554%
PE 79843 0.91 0.91 81.92 28 385557 0.21 47799.2 1.000% 11287915 0.707332%
SA 74759 0.85 0.85 82.77 29 107644 0.06 113958.0 0.523% 14328632 0.521746%
PH 71123 0.81 0.81 83.58 30 114747 0.06 19284.6 0.748% 37602976 0.189142%
KR 56252 0.64 0.64 84.23 31 1140195 0.63 20134037.8 0.041% 41091681 0.136894%
MA 54360 0.62 0.62 84.85 32 3357 0.00 09833.8 0.540% 17770081 0.305907%
IQ 53464 0.61 0.61 85.46 33 74828 0.04 1854.3 6.112% 2210175 2.41899%
FR 48715 0.56 0.56 86.01 34 1267101 0.70 2676029.4 0.063% 54473474 0.0894288%
CL 47951 0.55 0.55 86.56 35 943450 0.52 1914119.6 0.332% 10482463 0.45744%
CO 47283 0.54 0.54 87.10 36 837303 0.46 1720805.5 0.222% 22160055 0.21337%
UK 46917 0.54 0.54 87.64 37 1298219 0.71 2761101.9 0.075% 54861245 0.0855194%
TN 44053 0.50 0.50 88.14 38 41548 0.02 015516.5 0.277% 4447885 0.990426%
AT 40001 0.46 0.46 88.60 39 1316697 0.72 3222631.7 0.173% 6657992 0.600797%
ZA 38460 0.44 0.44 89.04 40 67916 0.04 151405.9 0.073% 20012275 0.192182%
MK 32268 0.37 0.37 89.40 41 142085 0.08 41077.2 2.925% 1314969 2.4539%
GR 31965 0.36 0.36 89.77 42 53226 0.03 17178.0 0.435% 6029983 0.530101%
BY 31639 0.36 0.36 90.13 43 300376 0.16 93420.8 0.903% 4523412 0.69945%
GB 29967 0.34 0.34 90.47 44 2239789 1.23 7425372.1 0.115% 0 n/a%
RS 29303 0.33 0.33 90.81 45 266038 0.15 91278.2 2.239% 3500047 0.837217%
HU 28370 0.32 0.32 91.13 46 142959 0.08 55800.0 0.478% 7170086 0.395672%
CA 27563 0.31 0.31 91.44 47 3396858 1.86 12389933.7 0.030% 29760764 0.0926152%
UY 25847 0.30 0.30 91.74 48 61758 0.03 24844.0 0.521% 1827781 1.41412%
AE 25498 0.29 0.29 92.03 49 11666 0.01 07901.1 0.315% 4517169 0.564469%
BG 24980 0.29 0.29 92.32 50 420409 0.23 1611632.5 0.210% 3881287 0.643601%
HR 24476 0.28 0.28 92.60 51 29056 0.02 12597.2 0.920% 2822427 0.867197%
IL 23911 0.27 0.27 92.87 52 245624 0.13 1013311.9 0.175% 5568961 0.429362%
NG 23664 0.27 0.27 93.14 53 66635 0.04 21126.8 2.051% 55930391 0.0423097%
DO 20313 0.23 0.23 93.37 54 13062 0.01 02991.0 0.663% 4539869 0.447436%
LK 20147 0.23 0.23 93.60 55 1211 0.00 01494.8 1.316% 3927948 0.512914%
CS 19801 0.23 0.23 93.83 56 147738 0.08 7379.8 5.092% 0 n/a%
GT 16811 0.19 0.19 94.02 57 101136 0.06 62638.2 0.622% 2255845 0.74522%
AM 16089 0.18 0.18 94.20 58 47908 0.03 2853.5 1.841% 1163269 1.38309%
AZ 15690 0.18 0.18 94.38 59 33695 0.02 2816.8 1.876% 5145531 0.304925%
SE 15122 0.17 0.17 94.55 60 726820 0.40 4823276.6 0.063% 8557561 0.176709%
BD 14509 0.17 0.17 94.72 61 34964 0.02 22781.0 0.509% 37548000 0.0386412%
CI 14287 0.16 0.16 94.88 62 5360 0.00 0901.5 1.548% 522231 2.73576%
BA 14217 0.16 0.16 95.04 63 16944 0.01 1718.8 1.932% 2535356 0.56075%
EC 14189 0.16 0.16 95.21 64 48726 0.03 34322.3 0.321% 5348765 0.265276%
?? 14145 0.16 0.16 95.37 65 9520 0.01 0508.1 2.719% 0 n/a%
YU 13542 0.15 0.15 95.52 66 601704 0.33 441400.0 0.945% 0 n/a%
PT 12267 0.14 0.14 95.66 67 74030 0.04 67368.8 0.163% 6900134 0.177779%
SG 11880 0.14 0.14 95.80 68 308593 0.17 2510869.2 0.107% 3971318 0.299145%
BO 11485 0.13 0.13 95.93 69 42098 0.02 31629.0 0.689% 3517991 0.326465%
SD 11289 0.13 0.13 96.06 70 46072 0.03 41503.3 0.733% 7183409 0.157154%
BE 11263 0.13 0.13 96.19 71 129033 0.07 1115226.3 0.072% 8559449 0.131586%
LY 11215 0.13 0.13 96.31 72 14373 0.01 1541.5 2.023% 1115025 1.00581%
LB 10951 0.13 0.13 96.44 73 59668 0.03 51027.2 1.041% 2535918 0.431836%
PS 10843 0.12 0.12 96.56 74 63274 0.03 51033.0 1.025% 0 n/a%
HK 10084 0.12 0.12 96.68 75 484311 0.27 4825972.8 0.038% 5207762 0.193634%
NP 9893 0.11 0.11 96.79 76 60332 0.03 6872.5 1.107% 3332602 0.296855%
LT 9831 0.11 0.11 96.90 77 455157 0.25 464132.0 0.232% 2397517 0.410049%
SY 9479 0.11 0.11 97.01 78 215 0.00 0871.0 1.063% 5474994 0.173133%
JO 9419 0.11 0.11 97.12 79 9175 0.01 01294.0 0.711% 2668644 0.352951%
KE 9406 0.11 0.11 97.23 80 10099 0.01 16900.2 0.133% 13805311 0.0681332%
EU 8893 0.10 0.10 97.33 81 349268 0.19 3955161.7 0.016% 0 n/a%
NZ 8814 0.10 0.10 97.43 82 49658 0.03 57601.8 0.113% 3873982 0.227518%
CZ 8778 0.10 0.10 97.53 83 372076 0.20 429847.7 0.087% 7632975 0.115001%
KW 8527 0.10 0.10 97.63 84 12556 0.01 14639.0 0.180% 2095304 0.406958%
KH 8130 0.09 0.09 97.72 85 28267 0.02 3913.9 0.869% 738641 1.10067%
OM 7421 0.08 0.08 97.80 86 107 0.00 0971.2 0.746% 1854090 0.40025%
C? 6424 0.07 0.07 97.88 87 89239 0.05 130.0 n/a% 0 n/a%
IE 6390 0.07 0.07 97.95 88 56801 0.03 85102.0 0.122% 3730402 0.171295%
NL 6287 0.07 0.07 98.02 89 608577 0.33 9631795.7 0.019% 15559488 0.0404062%
MD 6125 0.07 0.07 98.09 90 19698 0.01 31854.4 0.323% 1585973 0.386198%
MN 5968 0.07 0.07 98.16 91 2813 0.00 0495.3 1.177% 521520 1.14435%
BH 5940 0.07 0.07 98.23 92 2435 0.00 0975.0 0.595% 1098546 0.540715%
BK 5440 0.06 0.06 98.29 93 89 0.00 0205.0 2.591% 0 n/a%
SN 5352 0.06 0.06 98.35 94 14156 0.01 2734.2 0.712% 2490631 0.214885%
CH 4938 0.06 0.06 98.41 95 137065 0.08 2713561.2 0.036% 6752540 0.073128%
UZ 4915 0.06 0.06 98.46 96 9525 0.01 1320.5 1.498% 10369924 0.0473967%
KG 4790 0.05 0.05 98.52 97 129487 0.07 27360.8 1.297% 1194084 0.401144%
MU 4783 0.05 0.05 98.57 98 4759 0.00 03226.8 0.145% 543550 0.879956%
AO 4640 0.05 0.05 98.63 99 4801 0.00 11292.2 0.351% 3058195 0.151723%
QA 4572 0.05 0.05 98.68 100 37328 0.02 81557.5 0.287% 1719437 0.265901%
YE 4482 0.05 0.05 98.73 101 0 0.00 081.8 5.354% 4321814 0.103706%
SK 4286 0.05 0.05 98.78 102 514895 0.28 1202577.1 0.162% 4386470 0.0977095%
GH 4228 0.05 0.05 98.83 103 57578 0.03 131117.0 0.370% 4217454 0.10025%
GE 4133 0.05 0.05 98.87 104 29056 0.02 71550.8 0.260% 2079917 0.19871%
CY 4045 0.05 0.05 98.92 105 2643 0.00 02011.9 0.196% 38961 10.3822%
AL 3920 0.04 0.04 98.96 106 36439 0.02 9255.0 1.501% 1641241 0.238844%
LA 3910 0.04 0.04 99.01 107 4105 0.00 171.8 5.322% 707871 0.552361%
TZ 3818 0.04 0.04 99.05 108 20267 0.01 51711.8 0.218% 6136331 0.0622196%
CM 3815 0.04 0.04 99.10 109 4117 0.00 1419.8 0.888% 1147199 0.332549%
SI 3721 0.04 0.04 99.14 110 67654 0.04 182580.3 0.141% 1397632 0.266236%
DM 3639 0.04 0.04 99.18 111 4942 0.00 1842.8 0.422% 40349 9.01881%
CR 3604 0.04 0.04 99.22 112 43528 0.02 124220.3 0.083% 2202308 0.163647%
MM 3213 0.04 0.04 99.26 113 3481 0.00 193.8 3.347% 583564 0.550582%
PY 3168 0.04 0.04 99.29 114 6454 0.00 23005.0 0.103% 1771188 0.178863%
PR 3037 0.03 0.03 99.33 115 98136 0.05 32909.5 0.326% 1897555 0.160048%
PA 2884 0.03 0.03 99.36 116 20419 0.01 74163.5 0.068% 1586537 0.18178%
ET 2858 0.03 0.03 99.39 117 1595 0.00 0244.2 1.143% 1352259 0.21135%
MZ 2600 0.03 0.03 99.42 118 474 0.00 0558.8 0.454% 1140311 0.228008%
HN 2506 0.03 0.03 99.45 119 165870 0.09 66448.5 0.546% 1503350 0.166694%
NO 2442 0.03 0.03 99.48 120 341051 0.19 13910051.2 0.024% 4471907 0.0546076%
DK 2177 0.02 0.02 99.51 121 184206 0.10 8414231.3 0.015% 5155411 0.0422275%
HT 2155 0.02 0.02 99.53 122 44534 0.02 20272.8 0.772% 1065470 0.202258%
LV 2137 0.02 0.02 99.55 123 61045 0.03 283835.0 0.054% 1621769 0.13177%
TT 1760 0.02 0.02 99.57 124 202183 0.11 114688.5 0.250% 729897 0.24113%
JM 1630 0.02 0.02 99.59 125 2728 0.00 1309.0 0.515% 1343472 0.121327%
EE 1479 0.02 0.02 99.61 126 4972 0.00 31606.5 0.090% 1007020 0.146869%
NA 1440 0.02 0.02 99.63 127 529 0.00 0558.0 0.252% 280288 0.513757%
GA 1411 0.02 0.02 99.64 128 6657 0.00 4629.2 0.219% 138584 1.01816%
LU 1356 0.02 0.02 99.66 129 1176996 0.65 867719.5 0.184% 468348 0.289528%
MV 1274 0.01 0.01 99.67 130 681 0.00 0235.5 0.528% 153560 0.829643%
MO 1179 0.01 0.01 99.69 131 4365 0.00 3423.0 0.272% 371512 0.317352%
SV 1174 0.01 0.01 99.70 132 80 0.00 0273.0 0.420% 1553115 0.07559%
UG 1143 0.01 0.01 99.71 133 8295 0.00 7305.2 0.366% 4941704 0.0231297%
AF 1134 0.01 0.01 99.73 134 245 0.00 095.8 1.157% 1659269 0.0683433%
BN 1051 0.01 0.01 99.74 135 84 0.00 0180.8 0.568% 246388 0.426563%
MR 987 0.01 0.01 99.75 136 2641 0.00 285.0 1.134% 180358 0.547245%
RW 935 0.01 0.01 99.76 137 8903 0.00 9494.2 0.185% 937964 0.099684%
NI 909 0.01 0.01 99.77 138 1016 0.00 1470.5 0.189% 773240 0.117557%
MG 860 0.01 0.01 99.78 139 778 0.00 0148.5 0.566% 452185 0.190188%
ML 805 0.01 0.01 99.79 140 2318 0.00 295.0 0.828% 336059 0.239541%
ZW 784 0.01 0.01 99.80 141 505 0.00 0140.8 0.544% 2156791 0.0363503%
ZM 755 0.01 0.01 99.81 142 282490 0.16 3741157.0 0.064% 1860966 0.0405703%
CD 731 0.01 0.01 99.81 143 133 0.00 022.2 3.208% 1236438 0.0591214%
BF 686 0.01 0.01 99.82 144 63 0.00 0125.8 0.533% 643504 0.106604%
MW 661 0.01 0.01 99.83 145 4515 0.00 6112.5 0.574% 710150 0.0930789%
FI 632 0.01 0.01 99.84 146 14390 0.01 2211420.4 0.005% 4789266 0.0131962%
FJ 603 0.01 0.01 99.84 147 118 0.00 073.8 0.798% 300326 0.200782%
BS 576 0.01 0.01 99.85 148 25695 0.01 44140.0 0.402% 226855 0.253907%
SR 554 0.01 0.01 99.86 149 77 0.00 075.5 0.717% 194269 0.285172%
SU 523 0.01 0.01 99.86 150 5450 0.00 10313.5 0.163% 0 n/a%
MT 491 0.01 0.01 99.87 151 178 0.00 0837.8 0.057% 286885 0.171149%
SO 468 0.01 0.01 99.87 152 1103 0.00 214.2 3.207% 138849 0.337057%
AN 463 0.01 0.01 99.88 153 3477 0.00 7454.8 0.099% 0 n/a%
CC 442 0.01 0.01 99.88 154 7297 0.00 1693.0 0.464% 0 n/a%
BJ 416 0.00 0.00 99.89 155 8124 0.00 19106.0 0.383% 0 n/a%
BQ 405 0.00 0.00 99.89 156 30177 0.02 7410.8 3.679% 0 n/a%
BW 381 0.00 0.00 99.90 157 144889 0.08 380274.2 0.136% 241272 0.157913%
GM 381 0.00 0.00 99.90 158 247 0.00 048.8 0.763% 229122 0.166287%
NE 376 0.00 0.00 99.91 159 910 0.00 253.5 0.686% 230084 0.163419%
PF 373 0.00 0.00 99.91 160 5 0.00 061.2 0.595% 145153 0.25697%
ME 355 0.00 0.00 99.92 161 258 0.00 041.0 0.846% 373655 0.0950074%
AW 338 0.00 0.00 99.92 162 250 0.00 054.8 0.603% 79650 0.424357%
DJ 302 0.00 0.00 99.92 163 78 0.00 0104.2 0.283% 64021 0.47172%
NC 299 0.00 0.00 99.93 164 1183 0.00 3222.0 0.132% 150896 0.19815%
GU 296 0.00 0.00 99.93 165 3632 0.00 12159.8 0.181% 98402 0.300807%
SZ 295 0.00 0.00 99.93 166 47 0.00 046.0 0.626% 288225 0.102351%
GN 274 0.00 0.00 99.94 167 77 0.00 016.2 1.647% 162202 0.168925%
CV 269 0.00 0.00 99.94 168 148 0.00 020.0 1.313% 181905 0.147879%
IS 269 0.00 0.00 99.94 169 24706 0.01 91987.4 0.027% 300656 0.089471%
BZ 267 0.00 0.00 99.95 170 3978 0.00 14136.8 0.191% 81930 0.325888%
LS 226 0.00 0.00 99.95 171 162 0.00 0128.5 0.172% 88602 0.255073%
TM 221 0.00 0.00 99.95 172 3073 0.00 1326.0 0.830% 363735 0.0607585%
CG 219 0.00 0.00 99.95 173 7683 0.00 35112.9 0.189% 266635 0.0821348%
BT 207 0.00 0.00 99.96 174 55 0.00 034.2 0.590% 182338 0.113525%
PG 206 0.00 0.00 99.96 175 211 0.00 186.0 0.234% 145256 0.141819%
AD 194 0.00 0.00 99.96 176 2833 0.00 1449.2 0.385% 73540 0.263802%
SS 181 0.00 0.00 99.96 177 10 0.00 010.5 1.683% 0 n/a%
TL 175 0.00 0.00 99.96 178 5 0.00 015.5 1.103% 10461 1.67288%
BM 159 0.00 0.00 99.97 179 16006 0.01 100257.8 0.060% 63070 0.252101%
KY 155 0.00 0.00 99.97 180 430 0.00 289.5 0.169% 0 n/a%
SC 150 0.00 0.00 99.97 181 3510 0.00 23195.2 0.075% 42380 0.353941%
JE 147 0.00 0.00 99.97 182 7821 0.00 53178.8 0.080% 38958 0.377329%
LR 143 0.00 0.00 99.97 183 828 0.00 546.8 0.299% 147510 0.0969426%
CU 130 0.00 0.00 99.97 184 7 0.00 0250.2 0.051% 2839881 0.00457766%
TJ 127 0.00 0.00 99.98 185 6310 0.00 4915.2 0.813% 1127193 0.0112669%
VU 127 0.00 0.00 99.98 186 444 0.00 313.0 0.954% 27147 0.467823%
SM 127 0.00 0.00 99.98 187 18 0.00 033.5 0.370% 16354 0.776568%
GQ 124 0.00 0.00 99.98 188 3072 0.00 2423.2 0.521% 95649 0.129641%
BI 121 0.00 0.00 99.98 189 11 0.00 056.2 0.210% 128799 0.0939448%
WS 116 0.00 0.00 99.98 190 414 0.00 349.5 0.229% 25111 0.461949%
AS 116 0.00 0.00 99.98 191 62 0.00 012.2 0.925% 0 n/a%
TC 107 0.00 0.00 99.98 192 0 0.00 010.8 0.972% 0 n/a%
GY 101 0.00 0.00 99.99 193 1656 0.00 1657.0 0.173% 254534 0.0396804%
GL 99 0.00 0.00 99.99 194 0 0.00 022.0 0.439% 37442 0.264409%
IO 90 0.00 0.00 99.99 195 21 0.00 03.0 2.930% 0 n/a%
TG 88 0.00 0.00 99.99 196 22718 0.01 2587.5 1.146% 278442 0.0316044%
CW 86 0.00 0.00 99.99 197 7106 0.00 8288.0 0.095% 0 n/a%
KN 82 0.00 0.00 99.99 198 2492 0.00 3020.2 0.395% 40251 0.203722%
SL 73 0.00 0.00 99.99 199 33 0.00 040.2 0.177% 71318 0.102358%
VI 67 0.00 0.00 99.99 200 7 0.00 026.2 0.250% 42687 0.156956%

The CBL and web pages are copyright © 2003-2016, all unauthorized copying is prohibited